What is Terminal Velocity and its Formula? How to calculate it programmatically?


What is Terminal Velocity?

Answer: Terminal velocity is the maximum velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid.

It occurs when the sum of the drag force (Fd) and the buoyancy is equal to the downward force of gravity (FG) acting on the object.

What is the Terminal Velocity Formula?

Vt = sqrt ( (2 * m * g) / (Cd * ρ * A))

where,

Vt = Terminal Velocity.
m = Mass of the falling object.
g = Acceleration due to gravity.
Cd = Drag coefficient.
ρ = Density of the fluid through which the object is falling.
A = Projected area of the object.

How to calculate Terminal Velocity Programatically?

Let's see an example in Python Prorgamming:

# Python program to calculate
# Terminal Velocity 
#
# author: Code2care.org

import math
def calculate_terminal_velocity(m, g, c, p, a): 

    print("Python Program to calculate Terminal Velocity:") 
    print("-------------------------------------------")

    print("Mass of the falling object:    ", m) 
    print("Acceleration due to gravity: ", g) 
    print("Drag coefficient:     ",c) 
    print("Density of the fluid through which the object is falling:     ",p) 
    print("Projected area of the object:     ",a) 

    #TerminalVelocity = Vt = sqrt ( (2 * m * g) / (Cd * ρ * A))
    terminal_velocity =  math.sqrt((2*m*g)/(c*p*a))

    print('-------------------------------------------')
    print("Terminal Velocity  Calculated:   ", terminal_velocity)

  
calculate_terminal_velocity(100, 20, 0.5, 40, 50)