Document Id is something which SharePoint internally assigns to documents and maintains a uniqueness for each document.
This Document Id never changes even if the document is moved anywhere else and so can be used as a bookmark to the document.
Just in case you want to access the DocId value or want to change it (not recommended though !!), you can refer to the the internal SharePoint column _dlc_DocId.
Get Doc Id value for a document
Set Doc Id value for a document
$item["_dlc_DocId"] = "NewId-12345"
Here is a complete example using PowerShell to access and modify the Document Id
$web = Get-SPWeb http://SharepointSiteUrl $list = $web.lists["Shared Documents"] //Get handle of item by ItemId $item = $list.getitembyid(1) //Get the Document Id using column _dlc_DocId $item["_dlc_DocId"] //Checkout before making changes $item.File.CheckOut() //Set the Document Id using column _dlc_DocId $item["_dlc_DocId"] = "NewId-12345" $item["_dlc_DocIdUrl"] = "http://SharePointSiteUrl/_layouts/DocIdRedir.aspx?ID=NewId-12345, NewId-12345" $item.update() //Check in once changes are completed $item.File.CheckIn("DocId changed and document checked in")
Note - Once the Document Id is modified, a search crawl (incremental is sufficient) is required in order to associate the changes with the document, else you will get errors when clicking on the Document Id.
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